Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster, LAPD (ret.), MPA
State and local governments can spend
more than $50,000 outfitting one police vehicle with modern technologies, and
adding the necessary information technologies can double the cost of
outfitting the vehicle, according to market observers and police departments.
Vehicle service life varies, but typically lasts 24/7 for three to five years
-- or about 85,000 miles.
With the technology refinements that
transform police cruisers into mobile offices, equipment installation is
similar to creating a small network in a home or office. Each police agency
starts with basic computing requirements and adds peripheral devices, choosing
different technology combinations, such as multiple radios, in-car video,
mobile data computers or even docking stations.
In the past, different agency choices
meant different installation schemes, and often duplicate and competing
installations. The vehicle would be shuttled from vendor to vendor with the
lights, radio and other equipment installed at different locations.
Today, the mini-networks installed in police cruisers are approaching
plug-and-play functionality of many home or office networks because more
agencies are considering commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology choices.
Hours of research and design are spent
making technology rugged enough to withstand the rigors of field police work,
but until recently, few concentrated on also making the installation rugged.
An unlikely trio of entrepreneurs -- Jack Kelley, former officer with
Riverside Police Department; Tom Harper, retired fleet manager from Banning,
Calif.; and Danny Gonzales, designer of high-performance, off-road racing
vehicles -- has developed a unique installation design and protocol for IT in
Typically police officers are considered
the end-users of mobile information technologies. But in reality, end-users
also include any personnel who maintain the vehicle, and information systems
(IS) personnel who repair and upgrade the technology.
These three can be, and often are,
competing end-users, each of whom places a different demand on how a
technology is implemented and used -- catering to the different end-users
means meeting a range of needs. Equipment installation has a huge impact on
people responsible for servicing the vehicle, said Brett Hite, fleet
coordinator for the Riverside Police Department.
For law enforcement officers, how
installation contributes to equipment functionality is a major concern. No
officer wants to see his or her equipment crash because it wasn't installed
properly. Deputy Corky Butler of the Riverside County Sheriff's Department
said he grew accustomed to carrying a tool kit to repair loose radio
connections. "I carried pliers, screwdrivers and fuses because the radio was
access to my backup," he said, and backup is important in a large county with
many desert and rural areas.
Closely inspecting a police cruiser's
interior will likely reveal a myriad of wires and connections placed
dangerously close to sharp metal edges and other hazards. Indeed, one
installation scheme bundles wires for the radio, mobile data computer and
emergency equipment, and leads them off directly behind the gas and brake
pedals. Each time a driver applies either pedal, the wires are pushed down.
One way the trio at Woodcrest Vehicle
Center changed this is by prefabricating a wiring harness that runs under the
vehicle's seats and allows for almost any combination of hardware. The wiring
harness contains different wires for different purposes, and not all are used
in any single combination of technologies.
The unused wires can be viewed as open
ports on the back of a PC -- ready for the next piece of hardware. To minimize
radio frequency interference, two wiring harnesses run on opposite sides of
the vehicle. Agencies gain economies of scale by standardizing installation
techniques, and a rugged, reliable and accessible system.
The installation protocols and equipment
borrow from the off-road racers of the Baja Peninsula, and both the wiring
harness and hardware connections in the police cruisers are ruggedized "If a
system fails while a racer is running along a cliff, it could cost his life,"
said Gonzales in comparing the similarity between the rugged nature of the
equipment in an off-road vehicles and police cruisers. "[The installation]
protects the system from the weather and the cops."
Many Woodcrest Vehicle Center custom
installation techniques borrow from a racing team's need to access problems
quickly in the pit. The prefabricated cable or wiring harness reduces the
number of potential trouble shooting points from dozens to just three.
Previously, when vendors or IS staff installed different technologies, there
was a tendency to splice into existing wires. Each new installation creates
multiple trouble-shooting points.
Building on the "vehicle office network"
concept, the trunk roll-out electronics tray is designed like the expansion
slots that allow home users to easily add components to their PCs. In common
installation practice, the electronics tray in the trunk rolls out like a
dresser drawer, but with this design, IS technicians must still work inside
the trunk. The Woodcrest design also easily unbolts from the rollers and
unplugs from the harness, so like a regular expansion slot for a PC, the
electronics tray can be easily replaced or repaired on the bench. The tray or
drawer itself is designed to handle two electronics boards stacked one on the
other -- much like PC expansion slots.
The tension created between competing end-users plays out in the Woodcrest
shop. Co-owners find themselves struggling over points of view. Kelley
concentrates on officer safety aspects. Gonzales has the view of an off-road
racer -- equipment must be rugged and reliable. Harper is constantly looking
for ways to gain economies of scale -- "doing it once, right." The discussions
are often intense, they agreed. "Because we had no preconceived notions on how
it should be done, all of our points of view carry equal weight," Kelley said.
The trio constantly communicates with
factories, from Ford to Federal Siren, to stay abreast of the latest
technology and problems throughout the industry. "It's all about imagination,"
The coffee cup is an everyday example of
a problem that must be solved. During a 10- to 12-hour shift, officers drink
liquid in the vehicle. Liquid, especially coffee, is bad for electronics.
Compounding the potential for trouble is that when radios, siren systems and
computer keyboards are configured between the seats of a police cruiser, flat
surfaces are created -- flat surfaces perfect for coffee cups.
Kelley, Gonzales and Harper experimented
with the installation angle of the center console. Instead of flat, they
sloped the console up toward the dashboard, making the radio, lights and siren
more accessible to the officer. They also experimented until they found the
angle at which no container of liquid could be balanced and designed a cup
holder, behind the console and between the seats.
Any police cruiser installation must be
adaptable to the changing technology, and the installations have to be as
thoughtful and rugged as the technology. IT that doesn't work because it was
installed improperly, or that adds to the danger and confusion of the patrol
car, can be worse than no technology at all.
The views of multiple end-users are
paramount to successful installations. Numerous studies indicate that end-user
perceptions of technology often make or break an application. "It's all about
buy-in," said Riverside Police Department's Hite. If tensions among the
different points of view are worked out on the shop floor, it is likely
end-user satisfaction and use will increase.